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Block Sizes and Shapes:
Concrete block units are made in sizes and shapes to fit different construction needs. Units are made in full and half length sizes, as shown

Figure 7-37. - Typical sizes and shapes of concrete masonry units:

In figure 7-37,. Concrete unit sizes are usually referred to by their nominal dimensions. A unit measuring 7 5/8 in. wide, 7 5/8 in. high, and 15 5/8 in. long is referred to as an 8x8x16 inch unit. When it is laid in a wall with 3/8 inch mortar joints, the unit will occupy a space 16 inches long and 8 inches high. Besides the basic 8x8x16 units, the illustration shows a smaller partition unit and other units that are used as much as cut brick or in brick masonry.

The corner unit is laid at a corner or at some similar point where a smooth, rather than a recessed, end is required. The header unit is used in a backing course placed behind a brick face tier header course. Part of the block is cut away to admit the brick headers. The uses of the other shapes shown are self-evident. Besides the shapes shown in figure 7-37, a number of smaller shapes for various special purposes are available. Units may be cut to the desired shapes with a bolster or, more conveniently and accurately, with a power-driven masonry saw.

The sides and the recessed ends of a concrete block are called the SHELL (fig. 7-38).

Figure 7-38. - Concrete block:

The material that forms the partitions between the cores is called the WEB, and the holes between the webs are called CORES. Each of the long sides of a block is called a FACE SHELL, and each of the recessed ends is called an END SHELL. The vertical ends of the face shells, on either side of the end shells, are called the EDGES.

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